Sunday, 30 December 2012

List Of Input Devices, Output Devices And Both Input Output Devices Related To Computer.

Here, I am going to share about the list of  basic Input Devices, Output devices and  Both input-output devices  related to computer.

Input Devices
  1. Graphics Tablets
  2. Cameras
  3. Video Capture Hardware
  4. Trackballs
  5. Barcode Reader
  6. Digital camera
  7. Gamepad
  8. Joystick
  9. Keyboard
  10. Microphone
  11. MIDI keyboard
  12. Mouse (pointing device)
  13. Scanner
  14. Webcam
  15. Touchpads
  16. Pen Input
  17. Microphone
  18. Electronic Whiteboard
  1. Monitor
  2. Printers (all types)
  3. Plotters
  4. Projector
  5. LCD Projection Panels
  6. Computer Output Microfilm (COM)
  7. Speaker(s)
Both Input-OutPut Devices
  1. Modems
  2. Network cards
  3. Touch Screen
  • Headsets
  • Speaker
  • FAX 
  • Audio Cards/Sound Card
  • Monday, 17 December 2012

    Input And Output Devices

    Monitor: An Output Device
    In computing, input/output or I/O is the communication between an information processing system (such as a computer) and the outside world, possibly a human or another information processing system. Inputs are the signals or data received by the system, and outputs are the signals or data sent from it. The term can also be used as part of an action; to "perform I/O" is to perform an input or output operation. I/O devices are used by a person (or other system) to communicate with a computer. For instance, a keyboard or a mouse may be an input device for a computer, while monitors and printers are considered output devices for a computer. Devices for communication between computers, such as modems and network cards, typically serve for both input and output.

    Note that the designation of a device as either input or output depends on the perspective. Mouse and keyboards take as input physical movement that the human user outputs and convert it into signals that a computer can understand. The output from these devices is input for the computer. Similarly, printers and monitors take as input signals that a computer outputs. They then convert these signals into representations that human users can see or read. For a human user the process of reading or seeing these representations is receiving input. These interactions between computers and humans is studied in a field called human–computer interaction.

    In computer architecture, the combination of the CPU and main memory (i.e. memory that the CPU can read and write to directly, with individual instructions) is considered the brain of a computer, and from that point of view any transfer of information from or to that combination, for example to or from a disk drive, is considered I/O. The CPU and its supporting circuitry provide memory-mapped I/O that is used in low-level computer programming, such as the implementation of device drivers. An I/O algorithm is one designed to exploit locality and perform efficiently when data reside on secondary storage, such as a disk drive.

    An I/O interface is required whenever the I/O device is driven by the processor. The interface must have necessary logic to interpret the device address generated by the processor. Handshaking should be implemented by the interface using appropriate commands (like BUSY, READY, and WAIT), and the processor can communicate with an I/O device through the interface. If different data formats are being exchanged, the interface must be able to convert serial data to parallel form and vice-versa. There must be provision for generating interrupts and the corresponding type numbers for further processing by the processor if required.

    A computer that uses memory-mapped I/O accesses hardware by reading and writing to specific memory locations, using the same assembly language instructions that computer would normally use to access memory.

    Higher-level implementation
    Higher-level operating system and programming facilities employ separate, more abstract I/O concepts and primitives. For example, most operating systems provide application programs with the concept of files. The C and C++ programming languages, and operating systems in the Unix family, traditionally abstract files and devices as streams, which can be read or written, or sometimes both. The C standard library provides functions for manipulating streams for input and output.

    In the context of the ALGOL 68 programming language, the input and output facilities are collectively referred to as transput. The ALGOL 68 transput library recognizes the following standard files/devices: stand in, stand out, stand errors and stand back.

    An alternative to special primitive functions is the I/O monad, which permits programs to just describe I/O, and the actions are carried out outside the program. This is notable because the I/O functions would introduce side-effects to any programming language, but this allows purely functional programming to be practical. 
    Printer: An Output Device
    Printer: An Output Device
    Addressing mode
    There are many ways through which data can be read or stored in the memory. Each method is an addressing mode, and has its own advantages and limitations.

    There are many type of addressing modes such as direct addressing, indirect addressing, immediate addressing, index addressing, based addressing, based-index addressing, implied addressing, etc.
    Direct addressing

    In this type of address of the data is a part of the instructions itself. When the processor interprets the instruction, it gets the memory address from where it can be read/written the required information. For example:[1]

    MOV register, [address] ; to read
    MOV [address], register ; to write

    ; similarly
    IN  register, [address] ; to read as input
    OUT [address], register ; to write as output

    Here the address operand points to a memory location which holds the data and copies it into/from the specified register. A pair of brackets is a deference operator.
    Indirect addressing

    According to the above example, the address can be stored in another register. Therefore, the instructions will have the register representing the address. So to fetch the data, the instruction must be interpreted appropriate register selected. The value of the register will be used for addressing appropriate memory location and then data will be read/written. This addressing method has an advantage against the direct mode that the register value is changeable so the appropriate memory location can also be dynamically selected.
    Port-mapped I/O
    Port-mapped I/O usually requires the use of instructions which are specifically designed to perform I/O operations.